1848-1907 Industrial Revolution II
The art of this period is familiar, since the world of the Realists, Impressionists and Post-Impressionists is much like our own. More and more people lived in cities and worked in factories or shops for wages. Scientific and technological advances increased dramatically during this period and although there was dislocation and privation, standards of living increased sharply. In essence, modern mass culture was born. Artists responded sometimes by embracing these radical changes, and at other times by resisting them. Key here is understanding the authority of the various art academies in Europe, which controlled matters related to taste and art, and which were, to some extent, always connected to the government. A small number of artists rebelled against the strictures of the academy, and against the demand for art to tell clear stories for a middle class audience, and formed what we know as the “avant-garde.”


  1. Pre-Raphaelites Pre-Raphaelites
  2. Late Victorian Late Victorian
  3. Realism Realism
  4. Art & the French State Art & the French State
  5. Impressionism Impressionism
  6. Post-Impressionism Post-Impressionism
  7. Symbolism & Art Nouveau Symbolism & Art Nouveau